Meanwhile, mobile ad platform Smaato reports that GDPR resulted in a sharp spike in costs for non-targeted mobile ad impressions, as advertisers shied away from targeting data they were not certain was collected with proper consent. Rates rose more in the U.S. (62%) than Europe (42%), perhaps because U.S. advertisers avoided the European market altogether. Spending on data known (or at least claimed) to have proper consent rose 6.5X in the month after GDPR went into effect, from a very low base. Private marketplaces, where consent is less of an issue, grew by 2.7x in Europe. Smaato expects the prices to fall as more complaint data becomes available.